August 23, 2013
Stainless Steel Tubing
Often there is need for a sturdy tubing that will not react
to the substance it is carrying, while at the same time resisting corrosion.
Food processing, auto engines, chemical plants, oil and gas transportation, and
a host of other applications just begin to scratch the surface of applications
that require a sturdy material to provide reliable tubing.
steel tubing is often the material of choice, as it is known for it's
resistance to corrosion, and has minimal reactivity to most chemicals. It is a
little different from most other tubing, in that it is sized from the outer
diameter rather than the inner, as is the case with most other materials.
tubing also comes in two forms: Seamless, which is extruded under high heat to
provide a stronger end product for high-pressure applications, and welded,
which is made by rolling up a stainless steel sheet and welding to create the
tube. Welded tubing is generally cheaper, but the weld line can be a fail point
also two different grades of stainless steel that can be used in these tubes-
304 grade mixes the steel with 8% nickel and 18% chromium, and the 316 grade
uses a blend of 16% chromium, 10% nickle and 2% molybdenum. The addition of
molybdenum to the 316 grade raises the steel's resistance to chlorides and
other chemical corrosives, which is a must when the tubing will be exposed to
the harsh salts of coastal or marine applications. Because of it's more
expensive composition, you can expect to pay slightly more for 316 grade, but
it might save you a costly replacement or two.
July 23, 2013
Stainless Fittings: Tube Fittings
Stainless fittings are used in multiple industries through
the world. Tube fittings are manufactured
by multiple companies in North America, Europe and Asia. The stainless tube fitting industry had its
major start in the state of Ohio during the manufacturing boom of the early 20th
century in America. Stainless tube
fittings were used to terminate tube ends using a system of ferrules and
compression nuts. The ferrule or
ferrules slipped onto tubing after which a nut was brought down onto the
ferrule and tube.
Once the nut was tightened, the ferrule compressed onto the
tube and then threaded onto a fitting body to terminate the tube. The stainless fittings that were used for
terminating stainless tubing was in the shapes of straights, 45 degree connector,
90 degree elbows, tees and crosses. Caps
and plugs were also used with the plumbing drawings called out for them. Stainless fittings that are used for tube
applications are generally manufactured out of 316 stainless steel.
Although Indian and Chinese companies have recently entered into
the market in recent years, these fittings are predominately American and
Korean (which have surpassed European manufacturers) made. American companies such as Swagelok and
Parker A-Lok as well as SSP and Tylok hold most of the market. Korean manufacturers are growing strongly as
their quality is easily equal to that of US and European manufacturers.
Korea based manufacturers of stainless fittings have a
strong reputation for quality and workmanship.
This has been an outcome of the deep history of shipbuilding Korea has
had for the past 40 years. Stainless
tube fittings are often used on ships, cranes, platforms and other equipment
that is exposed to the harsh saltwater and corrosive chemical often found off
shore. As Korea has built an economy
based on export, components such as tube fittings have to be of excellent quality
to meet requirements of their customers globally.
Swagelok of Ohio is still the market mover in the industry
and has a deep history of manufacturing as well as logistical expertise. Their vendor managed inventory (VMI) programs
are used throughout the world for manufacturers that want to keep inventory
available and stock lean. Swagelok is a
privately held corporation that produces approximately $1,500,000,000 in
revenues (US dollars) annually across three major manufacturing centers. A distribution network of 200 corporate owned
and dealer supply hoses keep Swagelok close to their customers.
The market for stainless fittings continues to grow
annually. Industries such as biotech,
alternative energy, chemical processing, and the petroleum industry push the
market ever upwards. These industries
cannot afford any leaks in their process and are willing to pay top dollar for stainless
fittings that can assure them of clean efficient function for years to come.
June 3, 2013
Stainless Steel Manufacturing Processses
Stainless steel is machined in the very same way as most steel components. The differences in process include heat treatment as well as the machine tools used to machine stainless versus carbon steel. Stainless can be more abrasive due to the higher levels of alloys such as Moly and Chromium. Nickel is also found in a high level in stainless fittings. Take a look at the YouTube video below for stainless steel manufacturing processes.
May 1, 2013
Stainless Steel hydraulic hose manufacturers see an increase in sales
Stainless steel hydraulic hose is
commonly used in corrosive environments throughout industries from offshore
drilling to food/beverage preparation.
For the first time since 2007, manufacturers of stainless hydraulic hose
have seen an larger than 25% quarter to quarter growth in the marketplace.
April 1, 2013
Stainless steel compression tube fittings used in numerous industrial
Hydraulic applications: food/beverage, offshore,
cryogenic, natural gas, and others use stainless steel tube fittings (also
known as compression fittings) to join stainless steel tubing for many years. Now these fittings are being incorporated into
emerging energy markets such as bio diesel, biopetroleum, pharma, and nuclear
Stainless steel fittings supplies single ferrule and double ferrule stainless
steel compression tube fittings that work as equivalent to Swagelok fittings.
These interchangeable fittings allow customers to install fittings that provide
excellent service at great value versus Parker or Swagelok fittings.
March 1, 2013
Stainless Steel Fittings Adds Filtration options to our online store such
as Air Sentry, CC Jensen and Magnum magnetic filtration.
You can now get a great selection on
hydraulic oil filtration products online. Our represented companies are best in
filtration products. They offer products that remove air contamination,
"in oil" contamination and metal contamination to keep moving parts
running cleaner and longer. Air Sentry provides a great selection of air
breathers that remove solid and water contamination from system incoming air.
These air desiccant filters carry a desiccant gel/pellets that absort water
content from the air. Air Sentry air desiccant filter come in a variety of
types depending on the application.
CC Jensen or CCJ filtration systems are offline hydraulic, gear and lubrication
filter systems that remove existing solid contamination form oils. Theses
filters have the ability to remove all unwanted solid contamination from a
system within hours.
Magnum filters use a magnetic filter to remove all unwanted ferrous material
from a system. The magnetic filters also remove large metal shavings that can
be extremely harmful to a hydraulic pump.
February 1, 2013
British BSPP and BSPT Metric Fittings & Hydraulic Adapters
StainlessSteelfittings.com carries a
full line of British BSPP (British Standard Pipe Parallel) and BSPT (British
Standard Pipe Tapered) hydraulic fittings for our North American customers.
BSPP is British Standard Pipe that has a parallel (hence the last "P"
in BSPP) thread line and seats directly into a cone. BSPT is British Standard
Pipe Tapered (the "T" in BSPT) stands for tapered) and tapers a
hydraulic connection in much the same was as does NPT or National Pipe Thread
Often BSPP and BSPT British fittings are found on equipment manufactured in
England or in Europe. This is an older thread pattern that is over time being
replaced by metric thread in Europe. However there are still a significant
amount of manufacturers that still use British fittings thread.
StainlessSteelFittings.com supplies a full line of British BSPP and BSPT
fittings for their line of customers.
January 1, 2013
Custom Manufactured Hydraulic Hose Assemblies Made and Shipped Direct
custom hydraulic hose assemblies. Provide us with the hose type, size, and
length, then tell us which hose ends you would prefer. We will build it and
ship it direct to you and a significant discount over your local hose shop.
StainlessSteelFittings.com uses excellent Parker/Weatherhead equivalent
hydraulic hose as well as US manufactured high quality hydraulic hose end
fittings. Using our in-house hydraulic hose crimpers, we can produce hose up to
2" in diameter with bite to the wire hose end fittings. Contact us today
with your specifications and we would be able to produce and ship your hose
order within the same week. We can provide high abrasion hydraulic hose as well
as standard hose for any application.
StainlessSteelFittings.com also supplies hydraulic fittings and adapters to
work in parallel with your hydraulic hose assembly. We carry a large selection
and have excellent stock to meet your needs.
December 11, 2012
Stainless Steel Fittings & Stainless Adapters for the Oil and Gas
Stainless steel fittings have seen a
major surge in usage due to high oil demand and production. Chemical processing
and well as hydraulic equipment often will require stainless steel material for
the fittings to last in harsh environments moving harsh chemicals.
In the global supply of stainless steel hydraulic fittings and adapters, there
are not that many manufacturers that produce quality stainless steel products.
Low cost countries have started to machine stainless fittings however often
their quality is inferior as smaller details are overlooked. Thread and bore
quality as well as inclusions in the metal may cause inconvenience to customers
that require their stainless adapters to perform for years on end.
StainlessSteelFittings.com carries only the highest quality stainless fittings
and adapters. StainlessSteelFittings.com also carries stainless steel hydraulic
hose along with stainless steel hose end fittings. These components are
qualified with many oil and gas customers across the globe and provide
excellent value for the price.
November 1, 2012
Hydraulic Hose Manufacturers Consolidation
Recently Eaton Aeroquip acquired SEL
Hydraulic Hose. SEL, based in Turkey, manufactured high quality hydraulic hose
for the European and middle eastern markets and was well known for it's high
quality hydraulic hose manufacturing. The quality was so high that Eaton
Aeroquip had no issue in purchasing SEL and will soon start marketing the brand
as it's own. With the premium brand mark up of course.
It seems this has become a habit in the hydraulic hose manufacturing industry.
Smaller high quality companies grow over decades to offer excellent quality
hydraulic hose and accessories. As soon as their products become a threat to
the profit margins of larger companies, they are bought out and then
consolidated into the fold.
There are still a few excellent independent hydraulic hose manufacturers left
that still make excellent quality hose at a fraction of the cost compared to
the larger manufacturers. StainlessSteelFittings.com specializes in carrying
these high quality hydraulic hose brands that provide excellent value and
matched quality to the larger brands.
October 3, 2012
Stainless Steel Hydraulic Fittings vs Carbon Steel Fittings
So, what's up with the huge price
difference? Stainless fittings are basically used in areas where carbon steel
corrodes too easily. Stainless Steel does not rust when exposed to water, which
makes it ideal in the marine, food, chemical and food industries. Stainless
steel fittings are typically also rated for higher pressures, which makes it
great for high pressure hydraulic applications. Why the high price? Well that's
due to the material cost but mainly due to the lower production volumes when
stainless steel fittings are produced.
September 3, 2012
CC Jensen / CJC / CCJ Offline By-Pass Oil Filtration Systems
CC Jensen oil filtration systems and CC
Jensen filters are designed to be by-pass offline oil filtration systems that
do not affect the main components in an oil circuit. These filtration systems
have their own pump and motor assembly that can run on 12V, 24V for DC and
110/240/480/600 V for AC. These filtration systems are build extremely robust
and have been for over 50 years in Denmark. They are built to last the life of
the equipment they are protecting and are found in many industries globally.
CC Jensen (also called CCJ and CJC) filtration systems are found on wind power,
waste/recycling, oil/gas, mining/construction, marine, industrial equipment and
storage tank applications. CC Jensen filters are the core technology behind the
filtration theory of CCJ filtration systems.
These filters have the most carrying capacity of solid and liquid contamination
by mass. The CCJ filters (also known as CJC filters) can carry multiple pounds
of solid contamination and can remove gallons of water from oil circuits.
CC Jensen filters are often connected to oil reservoirs where they are most
efficient in removing contamination down to the sub micron level. Contact
Stainless Steel Fittings for a quote on CC Jensen by-pass filtration systems.
We assist in system design and can offer on-site installation if required.
August 2, 2012
Hydraulic Quick Disconnects
Quick connects (also called quick
disconnects and quick couplers) are an essential family of hydraulic components
for hydraulic systems. Quick connects are used for hydraulic connections that
require frequent hydraulic plumbing changes. These couplers are often found in
the oil/gas industry where frequent rig moves require hydraulic lines to be
disconnected before transport.
Quick disconnects have to be able to 1.) bear high pressure without premature
release 2.) couple easily between male and female quick coupler adapter sets
and 3.) endure hundreds if not thousands of connections without leaking. These
requirements force hydraulic quick coupler manufactures to produce high quality
quick connects to satisfy the customer's specifications.
Quick connects come in multiple styles and are often interchangeable between
brands. ISO A, ISO B, Agricultural AG, Flushface, and General Purpose quick
connects are available at StainlessSteelFittings.com. These can be purchased
individually or in sets.
July 6, 2012
Hydraulic Crimpers for Hydraulic Hose Assemblies
Hydraulic crimpers for hydraulic hose
come in two types. The first is an adjustable style with a dial in gauge that
allows the user to dial in the final crimp diameter. In order to use these
adjustable variable hydraulic crimpers, the user does need a die to bring the
fitting close to the desired diameter. The second type is a fixed style of
hydraulic crimper manufactured by companies such as Parker.
These type of fixed hydraulic crimpers only allow users to manufacture hose
assemblies using the same brand of hydraulic components as the crimper itself.
Manufacturers will often use this technique to supply their own brand of
hydraulic hose and hose ends after a crimper is sold to a customer.
Adjustable hydraulic crimpers are gaining in popularity and are manufactured by
a few large manufacturing companies. Included in this group is Customer Machining
Services Inc. of Valparaiso, IN which manufactures the CustomCrimp brand of
crimpers. CMS Inc manufactures both adjustable and fixed crimpers.
June 3, 2012
A Full Line of Stainless Steel Hydraulic Fittings
StainlessSteelFittings.com supplies a
full line of stainless steel hydraulic fittings such as stainless steel pipe
fittings, stainless steel JIC fittings, stainless steel NPSM pipe swivel
fittings, stainless steel o ring boss ORB fittings, and stainless steel flare
flareless compression fittings.
Stainless steel pipe fittings and adapters as well as the other stainless
thread styles are often used in applications requiring sanitary or chemical
protection for the fluid in the hydraulic system. Stainless steel pipe fittings
can be found in food processing, beverage manufacturing, chemical manufacturing
and fluid refining.
StainlessSteelFittings.com uses SS316 stainless steel which is a high strength
material often used for manufacturing stainless industrial tools. Our stainless
steel fittings are forged in one piece than machined to requirement
Stainless steel pipe fittings are growing in popularity and usage across the
industry. Look to StainlessSteelFittings.com for your stainless steel fitting
May 4, 2012
Hydraulic Hose Summary
Hydraulic hoses are used for high
pressure fluid power applications on mobile and fixed machinery.
StainlessSteelFittings.com carries an outstanding inventory of excellent
quality hydraulic hose and fittings that are manufactured to the same
specifications as brands such as Parker Hose, Gates Hose, Weatherhead, Eaton
Aeroquip Hose, Goodyear, and other respected major manufacturers.
Our customers include the largest onshore and offshore oil & gas drilling
contractors, mining/construction operators, waste/recycling fleets, power
generation companies, as well as thousands of repair and maintenance
professionals. Our hydraulic hoses are matched perfectly with our hydraulic
hose fittings to provide superior performance and value.
February 3, 2012
Quick Connect / Disconnect Couplers
Quick Connects/Disconnect couplers are
used to rapidly connect and disconnect hydraulic fluid lines with the minimal
of spillage. Quick connects couplers are manufactured by multiple manufacturers
and can be often interchanged. StainlessSteelFittings.com supplies the highest
quality hydraulic quick connects/disconnect couplers such as flushface, ISO A,
ISO B, wingnut, Ag, and Skid Steer quick couplers.
For more details and information on the Quick Connect/Disconnect Couplers
below, be sure to click on "more info". If you need more information
than what you see online, be sure to contact us.
January 13, 2012
More About Us, StainlessSteelFittings.com
StainlessSteelFittings.com supplies OEM equivalent, industrial grade hydraulic
hose, hydraulic fittings, hydraulic tubing, steel adapters, quick connects and
other hydraulic components directly from our manufacturing partners. We focus
on maintaining the highest quality standard while providing excellent customer
service to back our products.
Since our start in 2000 StainlessSteelFittings.com has grown steadily into one
of the largest distributors of hydraulic hose, fitting and tubing components in
North America. Our clients range from small shops to some of the largest
Fortune 500 companies in the petroleum, mining, energy production,
waste/recycling and agriculture industries.
We are passionate about our business and hope to have the privilege of serving
you soon. When you have questions or need more information on hydraulic hose,
hydraulic fittings, hydraulic tubing or any of our hydraulic supplies, please
feel free to contact us at any time with your feedback and we will see you soon
December 13, 2011
Hydraulic Hose Sector Market Trends
The hydraulic hose and fitting sector
continues it's upward growth after taking a hit in the down markets of 2007 and
2008. Industrial manufacturing followed by the boom in oil and gas production
has lead this industry back on the path to profitability.
"Hydraulic hose and hydraulic fittings always lag behind a recovery,"
said Larry Jones, executive of a major hose manufacturer. "The Parker
Hose, Eaton / Weatherhead, Aeroquip, Gates and Goodyear brands took hits but
are now all starting to recover at a healthy pace" he added.
"It's important to note that the hydraulic hose market really is a robust
industry," said Jeff Funk, VP of a Fluid Conveyance business. "It's
an enabler." "As such, without hydraulic power, some industries
couldn't even operate." He added "The hose industry will come out and
continue to be a contributor to all other industries."
"The only ones that are that are doing very well are off-shore and very
deep water drilling. Everybody else has to be affected some way," said the
VP of sales for Hy-Flo Hydraulics Inc.
However, as the market for hydraulic fittings, hydraulic hose, and adapters
starts to resume business as normal, many executives understand that to weather
the downward trend, a company needs to stay healthy during the upwards trends.
This involves all facets of a business and it's product portfolio.
StainlessSteelFittings.com stays healthy by always monitoring it's lead time to
insure it has the stock it needs to serve its customers but not to over stock
in case there is a turn. With fulfillment rates in the 98% range, it is clear
this is a strategy that works.
November 10, 2011
Hydraulic Hose Suction Lines
Hydraulic Hose suction lines supply
pumps with oil from their reservoirs. Hydraulic suction hoses are unique
because they can go below the atmospheric pressure and if not constructed
properly, the hose will collapse which will starve a pump for oil and will
ultimately cause a pump failure. This is why it's not a good idea to replace
suction lines with a higher pressure hose as the inner liner of a high pressure
hose can collapse from exposure to a vacuum. Suction hydraulic hoses typically
have coiled wires incorporated inside the tube in order to stiffen it and
If a suction strainer is used and undersized for the flowrate, and a machine is
older where the strainer may be partially plugged, the pump may generate high
vacuum pressures. Another thing to determine is what suction line is large
enough for the hose flow rate and length of hose run. The hydraulic fittings
used in suction lines are also critical. As are other components such as
hydraulic adapters, cam and groove hydraulic fittings, and hose guards. Some
rules of thumb state that 90-degree fittings are equivalent to 6 feet of
hydraulic hose when calculating a pressure drop across an assembly. The best
way to verify that a suction hydraulic hose line is good is for an engineer to
be responsible for building a machine that checks pressure drops in the suction
line during hydraulic operations including cold weather. If t here are multiple
pump failures on a machine, it could be the hydraulic suction line itself.
Contact a local hose supplier, as they should be able to provide pressure gages
in order to check the lines. Another thing to inspect are the hydraulic
fittings themselves. I've experienced 90-degree fittings not drilled properly,
resulting in a much smaller hole than was intended, and creating, in effect, an
unwanted orifice. The best way to create a 90-degree turn may be through a
90-degree hydraulic hose end fitting because the tube bend is usually gentler
than a sharp corner hydraulic fitting.
However, sometimes the space is limited on a machine and you have to make due
to the best you can. In this case, make a suction hydraulic hose and hydraulic
fitting assembly as large as possible right into the pump and the reduced the
size at the pump. The high-pressure line will typically run from the pump to
the hydraulic valves and then to the motors and cylinders.
October 3, 2011
Hydraulic Hose System Design
Hydraulic hose must match the highest
pressure capable in a hydraulic system, which is typically the pressure the
pump provides. However, there can certainly be pressure increasing components
in machines that can go much higher than the hydraulic relief or a pump
pressure capacity, especially when a pressure intensifying cylinder is flow
generated. Special attention must apply when designing systems with geared flow
dividers because of this effect.
Hoses usually have a burst rating of 4 times the pressure rating so although a
lower rated hose can work for a short time, they will fatigue and then fail in
a shorter time. It's a good idea to then look at the failed hose to make sure
it will match the hydraulic flow circuit pressure ratings. Sometimes people can
simply make a hydraulic hose assembly from the wrong type of hose and won't
realize it only until failure. This can happen even from the factory.
High pressure hydraulic lines for mobile equipment usually come in a few number
of pressure ranges. There are exceptions to this, especially with hose
manufacturers trying to crack into market share by offering different benefits
to their customer. 6000 psi pressure rated hydraulic hose can be typically
found on closed loop hydro-static circuits such as trackground drives and
higher horsepower drives used on drillers, trenching equipment, etc.
Next, there is the 4000-psi hose that is used on some of the open loop piston
pumping systems involved in manufacturing. The most common hydraulic hose found
in industry is the 3000 psi rated hose, which is common with gear pumping
circuits used in correlation with high pressure cylinders and gear motor
systems. There are many hoses 1500 and lower psi ratings for the return lines
and other special case applications. Most of these hydraulic hose lines are
used to supply the valves and then return back to oil coolers, hydraulic
filters, and the oil reservoir. If you wonder, why not use the highest pressure
hydraulic hose on everything in an oil circuit; it's because of the higher
September 8, 2011
Manufacturing Hydraulic Hose
Often, steel lines have advantages over
hydraulic rubber hoses because of greater heat rejection, better abrasion
resistance, fire resistance, and better pressure fatigue resistance. If there
is a long distance run to on a machine, it can be a smart idea to install solid
steel lines bent into shape for routing the hydraulic oil circuit.
Hydraulic hoses expand with every pressure cycle. These hoses usually have a
crimped steel end also called a hydraulic fitting. Fatigue failure of a
hydraulic hose will typically happen near the hose end as the rubber hose and
the steel fitting hose end will expand at their different rates. The hydraulic
hose end can also be susceptible to an incorrect crimp process if the crimping
technician is not trained. Steel hydraulic lines are not going to be as
flexible as hydraulic hose, so be careful to not preload any component that
they are connected to when mounting the steel line to the machine.
During manufacturing, hydraulic hose is the last thing done to a machine when
being built. When technicians and engineers are hurried and under work pressure
to meet deadlines, it is the hydraulics and hydraulic hose that usually suffer.
Overtime, after complaints come back in from the customer or if you have a good
technician, they can route the hydraulic hoses and fittings to give the best
service of the components.
In addition, it is important to note that careful attention should be made as
to how hydraulic hoses will lay while in service. For example, is your machine
following the minimum bending radius? Are your hydraulic hoses clamped into
place so to prevent the rubbing that occurs when under pressure? When you are routing
hydraulic hoses through a structure that pivots can you prevent these hoses
from undergoing strain? Will your hoses clear obstructions, other pinch points,
and will not be subject to unnecessary rubbing? Have you made your hose as
short as possible to reduce wear? Can you change a crimp hydraulic hose end to
provide better routing? Have you eliminated as many twists as possible? It is
necessary to pay close attention to these questions when you are designing your
hydraulic hose system.
August 8, 2011
Hydraulic Fitting Tips and Techniques
Flat face hydraulic fittings and
hydraulic hose are the best due to the excellent sealing arrangement and also
the torque set up on the hose crimp end. The benefit of JIC tapered ends is
that they do not ever fully bottom out so it can be very easy to over-tighten a
JIC hydraulic hose fitting. Flat face fittings are sometimes preferred because
you have to make contact with a flat surface before you torque to spec. It is
quite fail proof. Yet on JIC fitting hose ends a major benefit is that even
hand tightened JIC hose will hold until they vibrate off.
Always use the proper tools for applying torque onto hydraulic hose fittings.
Most of the larger manufacturing hose fitting companies have their own torque
wrenches for specific sizes and types of hose. Although this isn't completely
necessary, it should be considered for highly sensitive installations. All that
matters is to reach 75% of the proof load on a bolt so there is a considerable
amount of range.
Engine hoses fittings require tighter tolerances because of the high
temperatures and vibration loads. Also, if a hydraulic hose line blow off
inside an engine housing and sprays oil onto a red hot components, the fire
that could result will probably cause significant damage to your machine. Many
off-road equipment have small gear pumps that are mounted on the front of
engines with poor hydraulic hose routings. Special attention has to be paid to
the fittings in these cases so they remain on and provide years of worry free
July 7, 2011
Testing Hydraulic Hose
Hydraulic hoses transport hydraulic fluid
to other components in hydraulic systems such as valves, actuators, and work
tools. Hydraulic hose as multiple layers to reinforce the assembly as often
very high pressures can exist in the circuit. Proper testing is necessary
before fitting a hose to a machine to determine the correct pressures required
in operation. There are multiple ways to test hydraulic hose including the
Burst Pressure: This test takes the hose to the maximum pressure needed to tear
through the skin of the hose. Once the hose is destroyed, the pressure recorded
is then known as the burst pressure. The hose pieces used for this test are
relatively short and are not usable after the test.
Proof Pressure: This test is to determine how much a hydraulic hose deforms over
time when subjected to a high pressure (normally 50% of the burst pressure).
Elongation, contraction, tearing, and changes in the circumference of the hose
are watched for. Over time, if a hose cannot stand up to the proof pressure, it
will fatigue and deform.
Hold Test: This test holds the maximum pressure a hose may see in a hydraulic
system for the length of time that may be experienced while in that system.
Again, as in the proof pressure test, elongation and contraction are observed